Editor’s Note: This article briefly describes the response of the Christian to the Lordship of Jesus Christ. Much more could be said about each of these aspects.
In the last article, we spent some time developing more perspective around the phrase “Jesus is Lord,” as well as what the titles Lord, Christ, son of God, and son of David all mean. We saw that all of these titles point to a simple fact: Jesus is King! Like any king throughout history, Jesus’ status as King should result in specific behaviors for those who claim him as Lord and King. In this article, we will ask the question: what is due to Jesus as our Lord and King?
Obedience, Loyalty, and Respect
One of the most important responses that Christians must have to Jesus as Lord is obedience to what he taught. Christians must be loyal to Christ and have complete respect, not just for what he did, but also for what he said. Let’s take a look at what Jesus expected of his disciples, and then, later, what his apostles expected of the church.
Luke 6:46-49 (ESV)
“Why do you call me ‘Lord, Lord,’ and not do what I tell you?
Everyone who comes to me and hears my words and does them, I will show you what he is like:
he is like a man building a house, who dug deep and laid the foundation on the rock. And when a flood arose, the stream broke against that house and could not shake it, because it had been well built.
John 15:4-11 (ESV)
Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit by itself, unless it abides in the vine, neither can you, unless you abide in me.
I am the vine; you are the branches. Whoever abides in me and I in him, he it is that bears much fruit, for apart from me you can do nothing.
If anyone does not abide in me he is thrown away like a branch and withers; and the branches are gathered, thrown into the fire, and burned.
If you abide in me, and my words abide in you, ask whatever you wish, and it will be done for you.
By this my Father is glorified, that you bear much fruit and so prove to be my disciples.
As the Father has loved me, so have I loved you. Abide in my love.
If you keep my commandments, you will abide in my love, just as I have kept my Father’s commandments and abide in his love.
These things I have spoken to you, that my joy may be in you, and that your joy may be full.
John 3:36 (ESV)
Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life; whoever does not obey the Son shall not see life, but the wrath of God remains on him.
John 8:31-32 (ESV)
So Jesus said to the Jews who had believed him, “If you abide in my word, you are truly my disciples,
and you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free.”
Matthew 28:18-20 (ESV)
And Jesus came and said to them, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me.
Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,
teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, to the end of the age.”
Jesus expected his disciples to obey and respect his commandments. Just as God’s commandments to Israel in the Old Testament time (Deuteronomy 6:24), Jesus’ commandments are for the good of his disciples. Those who act upon the commandments of Jesus (given to him by God the Father – see John 7:16) are like those who build their house upon the rock. As the turbulence of life crashes, the house will hold. Similarly, the only way that Christians can produce fruit is by abiding in Christ. This includes, of course, following his commandments. Continuing to follow the words of Jesus will lead us to eternal life and to the truth, which will set us free. And lastly, just before Pentecost, Jesus told his disciples to teach all of the new converts in the future to observe all that he had commanded them. Notice that obedience is not required in an “I’m more powerful than you, so you have to do what I say” coercive way. Rather, obeying Jesus is literally the best thing that we as Christians can do, because it directly and fully benefits our lives.
What kind of loyalty, respect, and obedience did the apostles later recommend for the church? Peter and Paul both highly respected and obeyed the words of Jesus faithfully and loyally throughout their ministries. Here are a few examples of how highly they viewed the words of Jesus:
I Peter 1:1-2 (ESV)
Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, To those who are elect exiles of the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,
according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in the sanctification of the Spirit, for obedience to Jesus Christ and for sprinkling with his blood: May grace and peace be multiplied to you.
I Peter 1:2 (KJV)
Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace unto you, and peace, be multiplied.
Peter began his first epistle by mentioning the importance of obedience. In the Greek of verse two, the word order more literally reflects how the King James Version was translated. Most modern translations tie the dual verb clause (“obedience and sprinkling of blood”) to Jesus Christ. That gives them the liberty to move the noun “Jesus Christ” after obedience. But there is a key point to consider here: whether this is obedience in a general sense, obedience to God, or obedience to Christ, functionally speaking, that obedience is the same. Obeying Christ, in its simplest Biblical sense, is following his example set in Scripture and obeying his teachings as recorded in the Bible. And, as we have already mentioned, Jesus taught his disciples the words that his Father and God gave him. At the time that Peter wrote this epistle, there was probably a robust oral tradition about what Jesus had said and done. In addition, the gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and, later, John) were being written down so we would have accurate accounts of what Jesus said and did. For Peter, obeying Jesus Christ was of vital importance. What about Paul?
I Timothy 6:3-5 (ESV)
If anyone teaches a different doctrine and does not agree with the sound words of our Lord Jesus Christ and the teaching that accords with godliness,
he is puffed up with conceit and understands nothing. He has an unhealthy craving for controversy and for quarrels about words, which produce envy, dissension, slander, evil suspicions,
and constant friction among people who are depraved in mind and deprived of the truth, imagining that godliness is a means of gain.
I think that these words speak for themselves. We can also look at I Corinthians 7 (where Paul alluded to the words of Jesus we have recorded in Matthew 5:31-32, Mark 10:2-12, and Matthew 19:3-9) and Romans 6:15-23 (where Paul’s thought process, by revelation, is remarkably similar to what we have recorded of Jesus in John 8:31-36). Paul, as an apostle of Christ, agreed with Jesus on every matter of doctrine and practice. Paul clearly taught the church to follow closely the teachings of Jesus.
Devotion of Mind
Jesus Christ deserves our devotion of mind. The world attempts to trick us into indulging in the affairs of the world and to sin, but as disciples of Jesus Christ, we can choose to put on the mind of Christ. We can devote ourselves fully to God and to His Son, Jesus Christ. Obedience to God and to Jesus begins in the mind.
II Corinthians 10:5 (NASB)
[We are] destroying speculations and every lofty thing raised up against the knowledge of God, and [we are] taking every thought captive to the obedience of Christ,
I Corinthians 2:16 (ESV)
“For who has understood the mind of the Lord so as to instruct him?” But we have the mind of Christ.
Philippians 2:5 (ESV)
Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus,
Romans 12:1-2 (ESV)
I appeal to you therefore, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship.
Do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewal of your mind, that by testing you may discern what is the will of God, what is good and acceptable and perfect.
Colossians 3:1-3 (ESV)
If then you have been raised with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God.
Set your minds on things that are above, not on things that are on earth.
For you have died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God.
God has given Christians the ability in Christ through the spirit to think righteous thoughts. We have the power to obey God as Jesus did. Christians can follow the example that Jesus set in obeying God – that’s what it means to “bring every thought captive to the obedience of Christ.” Just as Jesus did, we set our minds on things above, and through the power of the spirit, we obey God. And again, because God the Father and Jesus the Messiah want the same thing for us (the best), obeying God is identical to obeying Christ. So much of our lives is in our minds—let’s do our best to consecrate as much time, energy, and “thought life” to God and Jesus Christ.
Worship and Praise
Jesus is not an ordinary human king—he is the Son of God, the Messiah, the King of kings and Lord of lords. He is the most exalted created being in the entire history of the Universe. First, because of his calling and vocation as the Messiah, and second, because of his accomplishments, leading to his exaltation, Jesus is worthy to receive our worship and praise.
Matthew 14:33 (ESV)
And those in the boat worshiped him, saying, “Truly you are the Son of God.”
Matthew 28:9, 17 (ESV)
And behold, Jesus met them and said, “Greetings!” And they came up and took hold of his feet and worshiped him.
And when they saw him they worshiped him, but some doubted.
Luke 24:52 (ESV)
And they worshiped him and returned to Jerusalem with great joy,
John 9:38 (ESV)
He said, “Lord, I believe,” and he worshiped him.
Philippians 2:9-11 (ESV)
Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name that is above every name,
so that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth,
and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.
Philippians 3:3 (ESV)
For we are the circumcision, who worship by the Spirit of God and glory [boast, rejoice] in Christ Jesus and put no confidence in the flesh—
Hebrews 1:6 (ESV)
And again, when he brings the firstborn into the world, he says, “Let all God’s angels worship him.”
Revelation 5:11-14 (ESV)
Then I looked, and I heard around the throne and the living creatures and the elders the voice of many angels, numbering myriads of myriads and thousands of thousands,
saying with a loud voice, “Worthy is the Lamb who was slain, to receive power and wealth and wisdom and might and honor and glory and blessing!”
And I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and in the sea, and all that is in them, saying, “To him who sits on the throne and to the Lamb be blessing and honor and glory and might forever and ever!”
And the four living creatures said, “Amen!” and the elders fell down and worshiped.
There are two major items to note on the subject of worship. First, there are six words for worship in the New Testament. Only one of them is ever attributed to Jesus—proskuneō. One usage defined by Thayer reads as follows: “in the NT by kneeling or prostration to do homage (to one) or make obeisance, whether in order to express respect or to make supplication, used of homage shown to men and beings of superior rank.” Christ is not to be worshipped to the full extent that we are to worship God. Christ is also not worshipped for the same reasons that God is worshipped: compare Revelation 4, where the Father is worshipped, with the Revelation 5 section referenced above, where Christ is worshipped.
Second, worship of Jesus has changed since his exaltation. During Jesus’ earthly ministry, he was paid the respect typically given of a holy man throughout the Bible. Notice that after his resurrection and ascension, the angels worship Jesus (see Revelation 5 and Hebrews 1:6). Simply speaking, Jesus is the only man that the angels worship in the entire Bible! This should get our attention as Christians. Since Jesus is our Lord and is God’s Messiah, we can glory (boast, rejoice) in what he has done, we can respect his office as the Lord and King, and we can praise him for what he continues to do for us (more on this in the next article). Christians should rightly recognize and be thankful for all that Jesus has done and continues to do – this praise and worship can rightly take place in our thoughts and in song. One important point here is that proper worship and praise does not exalt Jesus beyond his status as a human. Songs that portray Jesus as creating the world in the beginning or acting throughout the Old Testament are inaccurate—this does not glorify God or His Messiah.
Devotion of Resources and Abilities
Another aspect of our devotion to Christ can be seen in our time, abilities, and material resources. Jesus desired that his disciples would take care of those less fortunate: the poor, needy, downtrodden, and outcast. In teaching this, Jesus was building on a long-standing history of supporting the poor found beginning in the Old Testament Law (see Leviticus 19:9; Leviticus 23:22; Leviticus 25; Ruth 2:2; Deuteronomy 14:28; Deuteronomy 15:1-11; Deuteronomy 26:12 for some examples), extending through the prophets (see Isaiah 1:14-17; Jeremiah 5:25-31; Zechariah 7:8-10 for a few examples) and past the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:44-47; Acts 6; Acts 11:28ff). Let’s see what Jesus asked of his disciples in this category:
Luke 14:12-14 (ESV)
He said also to the man who had invited him, “When you give a dinner or a banquet, do not invite your friends or your brothers or your relatives or rich neighbors, lest they also invite you in return and you be repaid.
But when you give a feast, invite the poor, the crippled, the lame, the blind,
and you will be blessed, because they cannot repay you. For you will be repaid at the resurrection of the just.”
Matthew 25:31-40 (ESV)
“When the Son of Man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, then he will sit on his glorious throne.
Before him will be gathered all the nations, and he will separate people one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats.
And he will place the sheep on his right, but the goats on the left.
Then the King will say to those on his right, ‘Come, you who are blessed by my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world.
For I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me drink, I was a stranger and you welcomed me,
I was naked and you clothed me, I was sick and you visited me, I was in prison and you came to me.’
Then the righteous will answer him, saying, ‘Lord, when did we see you hungry and feed you, or thirsty and give you drink?
And when did we see you a stranger and welcome you, or naked and clothe you?
And when did we see you sick or in prison and visit you?’
And the King will answer them, ‘Truly, I say to you, as you did it to one of the least of these my brothers, you did it to me.’
Jesus constantly reached out to the needy in every category of life. He healed the sick, cast out spirits, and raised the dead. Jesus also taught compassion for the downtrodden and poor. The apostles and early disciples of Jesus carried this teaching forward:
Romans 15:26-27 (ESV)
For Macedonia and Achaia have been pleased to make some contribution for the poor among the saints at Jerusalem.
For they were pleased to do it, and indeed they owe it to them. For if the Gentiles have come to share in their spiritual blessings, they ought also to be of service to them in material blessings.
Galatians 2:10 (ESV)
Only, they asked us to remember the poor, the very thing I was eager to do.
James 2:14-17 (ESV)
What good is it, my brothers, if someone says he has faith but does not have works? Can that faith save him?
If a brother or sister is poorly clothed and lacking in daily food,
and one of you says to them, “Go in peace, be warmed and filled,” without giving them the things needed for the body, what good is that?
So also faith by itself, if it does not have works, is dead.
I John 3:16-18 (ESV)
By this we know love, that he laid down his life for us, and we ought to lay down our lives for the brothers.
But if anyone has the world’s goods and sees his brother in need, yet closes his heart against him, how does God’s love abide in him?
Little children, let us not love in word or talk but in deed and in truth.
Notice that the focus of the apostles’ and disciples’ efforts was with the Christian poor (notice the use of “brothers” and “sisters” in many of these contexts). In addition, Acts 2 mentions all things being common within the community of Christian faith, not necessarily the poor Romans and Jews around them. Acts 6 discusses how the widows of the Christian community were taken care of, not a soup kitchen for a larger audience. Acts 11 enumerates how a contribution was sent to the poor saints in Jerusalem, not needy people in Jerusalem generally. Galatians 6:10 says that Christians are to be good to all people but especially to the Christian community. Christians can show their devotion to Christ through giving of their time, abilities, and finances.
Devotion of Heart, Admiration, Love, and Thankfulness
To this point in the article, we have seen that Jesus deserves much from us as his followers. In order for this to be successful, we should have a heart full of admiration, love, and thankfulness to Jesus the Messiah.
Ephesians 5:1-2 (ESV)
Therefore be imitators of God, as beloved children.
And walk in love, as Christ loved us and gave himself up for us, a fragrant offering and sacrifice to God.
Ephesians 6:23-24 (ESV)
Peace be to the brothers, and love with faith, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
Grace be with all who love our Lord Jesus Christ with love incorruptible.
Philemon 1:4-5 (ESV)
I thank my God always when I remember you in my prayers,
because I hear of your love and of the faith that you have toward the Lord Jesus and for all the saints,
I John 5:1 (ESV)
Everyone who believes that Jesus is the Christ has been born of God, and everyone who loves the Father loves whoever has been born of him.
God the Father and Jesus love us. In response to this love, Christians are to love the Father and the Son, as well as those who have been born of the Father (other Christians). Jesus called his disciples even to love those who persecuted them as enemies (Matthew 5:44); Christians today are called to the same walk of love. And as we have already seen, loving God and His Messiah is necessarily indicated by keeping their commandments (I John 5:1-3; John 14:15, 21; John 15:10).
Additionally, our heart should overflow with thankfulness for all that Jesus has done for us and continues to do (even if we do not know everything that he is doing for us right now). From a Biblical perspective, there are several different aspects of thankfulness. First, there is aspect of thankfulness called thanksgiving that is directly related to prayer. This aspect of thankfulness, denoted by the Greek family related to eucharisteō,is always directed to God the Father (see John 11:41; Acts 27:35; Romans 1:8, among many examples). The noun form, eucharistia in Greek, is only used with God the Father (II Corinthians 9:11-12; Philippians 4:6; I Thessalonians 3:9, among others). Second, there is the general principle of being thankful. Throughout the Scriptures and throughout life, there are many things that can lead a person to being thankful. Christians can definitely be thankful for the accomplishments of Jesus, our Lord and God’s Messiah.
What is interesting is that Paul was not just thankful for the accomplishments of Christ—he was also thankful for his current relationship with Jesus.
I Timothy 1:12 (ESV)
I thank him who has given me strength, Christ Jesus our Lord, because he judged me faithful, appointing me to his service,
Interestingly, this phrase “I thank” comes from the Greek phrase echōcharis, which is much different from the general phrase for thanksgiving as seen above. This phrase is also used of thankfulness to God in II Timothy 1:3. Why was Paul thankful to Jesus? Because Jesus had judged Paul faithful and appointed Paul to his service, and also given Paul the strength to accomplish what Paul had been called to accomplish. The exact nature of what Paul is referring to in the phrase “given me strength” is unclear. It is possible that Paul is referring to the holy spirit, which is Christ within Paul. It is also possible that Paul is referring to the times Jesus appeared to him, which we know happened on multiple occasions. Perhaps Paul had both of these in view. While Paul had a special relationship with Jesus (as did the other apostles), it is clear that Christians can be thankful to Christ Jesus as well.
Another aspect of Jesus’ lordship is that he is due service. As mentioned before, Jesus never “strong-armed” anyone. He did not come to force obedience or servitude. However, according to the Bible, the natural response to receiving the love of God and Christ is to serve both of them. And serving Christ means serving God; serving God means serving Christ. Since they are united completely in purpose, serving one necessitates serving the other.
Romans 1:9-10 (ESV)
For God is my witness, whom I serve [latreuō– one of the words for worship never used with Christ]with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, that without ceasing I mention you
always in my prayers, asking that somehow by God’s will I may now at last succeed in coming to you.
Romans 12:11 (ESV)
Do not be slothful in zeal, be fervent in spirit, serve [douleuō] the Lord.
Romans 14:18 (ESV)
Whoever thus serves [douleuō] Christ is acceptable to God and approved by men.
Colossians 3:23-24 (ESV)
Whatever you do, work heartily, as for the Lord and not for men,
knowing that from the Lord you will receive the inheritance as your reward. You are serving [douleuō] the Lord Christ.
I Thessalonians 1:9-10 (ESV)
For they themselves report concerning us the kind of reception we had among you, and how you turned to God from idols to serve [douleuō] the living and true God,
and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead, Jesus who delivers us from the wrath to come.
Christians have been bought with the price of Christ’s blood (I Corinthians 6:20; I Corinthians 7:23), so our natural response is to serve our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ freely in love.
Calling upon the name of the Lord
Finally, I wanted to return to the subject of “calling upon the name of the Lord,” which was discussed in the second article in this series. While some see “calling upon the name of the Lord” as a clear indication that prayer to Jesus is acceptable, the application of this Old Testament phrase to Jesus is limited from its original Old Testament scope. In that article, we saw repeated themes in the Old Testament usage: an altar, worship, service, sacrifice, and calling out verbally (invoking a name). As we have seen in this article, Jesus is to be worshipped, but not exactly in the same sense that the Father is (all six words for worship are applied to the Father; only one applied to the Son). Jesus is to be served, but not in the same sense as the Father (latreuō is applied to only the Father, while douleuō is applied to both). Doesn’t it make sense, then, that the phrase “calling upon the name of the Lord” has somewhat limited applications to Jesus? And if so, without any documented case of prayer or even talking to Jesus when he was not present, does it make Biblical sense to promote that prayer to Jesus is warranted?
With this framework in mind, let’s reconsider the six occasions where this phrase is used in the New Testament:
Acts 2:21 (ESV)
And it shall come to pass that everyone who calls upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.’
Acts 9:13-14, 21 (ESV)
But Ananias answered, “Lord, I have heard from many about this man, how much evil he has done to your saints at Jerusalem.
And here he has authority from the chief priests to bind all who call on your name.”
And all who heard him were amazed and said, “Is not this the man who made havoc in Jerusalem of those who called upon this name? And has he not come here for this purpose, to bring them bound before the chief priests?”
Acts 22:16 (ESV)
And now why do you wait? Rise and be baptized and wash away your sins, calling on his name.
Romans 10:11-13 (ESV)
For the Scripture says, “Everyone who believes in him will not be put to shame.”
For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, bestowing his riches on all who call on him.
For “everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.”
I Corinthians 1:2 (ESV)
To the church of God that is in Corinth, to those sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints together with all those who in every place call upon the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, both their Lord and ours:
II Timothy 2:19-22 (ESV)
But God’s firm foundation stands, bearing this seal: “The Lord knows those who are his,” and, “Let everyone who names the name of the Lord depart from iniquity.”
Now in a great house there are not only vessels of gold and silver but also of wood and clay, some for honorable use, some for dishonorable.
Therefore, if anyone cleanses himself from what is dishonorable, he will be a vessel for honorable use, set apart as holy, useful to the master of the house, ready for every good work.
So flee youthful passions and pursue righteousness, faith, love, and peace, along with those who call on the Lord from a pure heart.
In every occurrence, “calling upon the name of the Lord” indicates a status: those who have eternal life (those who are “saved”). Given the lack of Biblical evidence to support praying or talking to Jesus, this phrase must have another meaning. The strongest Biblical case that can be made is that “calling upon the name of the Lord” is believing the gospel, repenting, and out of that repentance showing forth dedication and loyalty to the Lord Jesus Christ.
So much is due to Jesus as our Lord. We owe our eternal lives to him (and to God, of course!). Our response can be one of love, dedication, obedience, service, and loyalty in mind, heart, time, resources, and ability. What can we do for our Lord through the power of the spirit?
I want to be careful here to clarify my use of terminology here. Some may say that the use of “king” language with Jesus is limited in the New Testament and that, specifically, the term “my king” is never used of Jesus in the Bible. First, we have seen in the previous article that the titles “Lord,” “Christ,” “Son of God,” and “Son of David” all have a kingly aspect to them. When we claim Jesus as our Lord (which is Biblical language), we are acknowledging at the same time that he is our King. Second, Paul uses Israel language to refer to the Church (Galatians 6:16). Jesus is the rightful Messiah, the King of Israel, and now, the people of God is the Church. This makes Jesus our King.
And yet, while I say this, it is important to understand what Jesus’ authority and power mean to our lives and what it does not mean. When David was King of Israel, he wielded authority. People had to obey the King. He set up laws for others to follow. Saying that “David is my King” for an ancient Israelite was a true statement with practical implications. Just as in ancient times when David was King of Israel, we can endeavor to walk in a way that pleases our King, Jesus. This does not necessarily mean, though, that we will see Jesus in this life. When we ask “what is due to Jesus as Lord” or “what does my King want me to do today,” this does not mean that we expect Jesus himself to tell us. We know that we can look at the Bible to see what Jesus taught and exemplified, so we can follow his example. And Jesus certainly could make a personal appearance—I’ll never rule that out. But we have to ground our answers to these questions with clear statements from the Bible.
It is important to note here that Paul also wrote additional information beyond what Christ taught. The point here is that Paul and Christ do not disagree on anything, not that their teachings covered the exact same subjects in the same length and manner.
It is important to recognize that the use of this word proskuneō is not limited to the movement of “bowing.” In Matthew 2:11, the wise men “bowed down and worshipped [proskuneō]” Jesus as a young child. This idea of proskuneō includes inner devotion and respect beyond a simple respectful bow.
Many Trinitarians argue that, since Jesus is worthy of worship, he must be God. This argument fails, because many people were worshipped as Jesus was in the Old Testament times (see Genesis 23:7; Genesis 33:3; Genesis 42:6; and I Chronicles 29:20 for four of many examples). See also this article: https://www.biblicalunitarian.com/videos/can-we-worship-jesus-christ
For more on how praise and worship of Jesus should be limited to Biblical facts, see this excellent podcast: https://restitutio.org/2016/03/04/should-we-worship-jesus/
For more on how Jesus being worshipped does not mean that he is God, see this excellent article: https://landandbible.blogspot.com/2019/02/is-early-jewish-christian-devotion-to.html